Emotions: are they 6 or 4? Let us understand why!
According to psychology, emotions are often defined as complex states of feelings that result in physical and psychological changes, which influence thinking and behavior .
Calls from Big Six , that is, the big 6, are joy , sadness , fear , surprise , anger and disgust . We can not confuse them with feelings, which go beyond the 300’s. I will address this theme in another post, I promise!
But in 2.014, the Institute of Neuroscience and Psychology at the University of Glasgow, Scotland, presented a study reducing the great emotions in 4: happiness, sadness, fear and surprise and anger and disgust . The latter were grouped and the reason is simple. Anger and disgust for the scientists stayed in a single group of emotions because the facial expressions before them were unique. The same thing happened with fear and surprise: the same facial expression.
“An emotion is a complex psychological state involving three distinct components: a subjective experience, a physiological response, and a behavioral or expressive response . “
(Hockenbury & Hockenbury, 2007)
Emotions exert an incredibly powerful force on human behavior. Strong emotions drive people to do incredible things they normally would not do or can help, in an incredible way, to avoid certain situations.According to author David G. Meyers, human emotion involves “… physiological excitement, expressive behaviors, and conscious experience.”
The main theories group the emotions into 3 main categories:
- Psychological : responses in the body are the responsibility of the emotions
- Neurological : brain activities lead to emotional responses
- Cognitive : thoughts and other mental activities play an essential role in the formation of emotion
The evolutionary Darwinian theory
Considered revolutionary, the theory of the naturalist Charles Darwin, according to the book Th e Expre ssio n of the Emotions in Man and Animals , 1,872, emotions evolve. This was because they were adaptive and allowed humans and animals to survive and reproduce. Feelings of love and affection lead people to seek companions and to reproduce. And his theory of “fight or flight” in relation to fear still prevails. According to the evolutionary theory of emotion, emotions exist because they serve an adaptive role. Emotions motivate people to respond quickly to stimuli in the environment, which helps improve the chances of success and survival.
For Darwim, both men and other animals expressed emotions through similar behaviors. To this day, many psychologists agree that certain emotions are universal to all human beings regardless of culture, race, and country, which are those of Big Six : joy, anger, fear, surprise, disgust, and sadness.
Theory of Emotion by James-Lange
In 1.884, the psychologist William James proposed that “we are sad because we cry, angry because we attack, afraid because we tremble; we do not cry, we attack or tremble because we are sad, angry or scared. ” That is, it was against the contrary that the emotion leads to a physical change. In his theory, the recognition of symptoms by the brain is what causes them to generate these emotions. For him, the physical sensations are the emotion.
Independent of James, another psychologist, the Danish Carl Lange had the same proposal, so it came to be known as James-Lange’s Theory of Emotion.
The Cannon-Bard Theory
In 1927, the neurophysiologist Walter Cannon refuted the James-Lange theory. For him, on the contrary, the threatening stimulus leads first to the emotion of fear, for example, and to cause a reaction in the body, he observed that from the brain to the physical reaction took from 1 to 2 seconds. A few years later, Cannon along with Philip Bard, proposed that mind and body operate independently when experiencing emotions. According to Cannon-Bard’s theory, information from an emotion-producing stimulus is processed into subcortical structures, provoking the experience of two separate things at about the same time: an emotion and a physical reaction. According to both, we feel emotions and experience physiological reactions like sweating, tremor and muscle tension simultaneously. For both, when the thalamus sends a message to the brain in response to an emotion-producing stimulus, it results in a physiological reaction. At the same time, the brain also receives signals that trigger the emotional experience. In Cannon-Bard’s theory, two separate things occur at almost the same time: emotion and physical reaction.
It is also known as the two-factor theory of emotion. It is an example of cognitive theory. It suggests that physiological arousal first arises, and then the individual identifies the reason behind the symptoms. Only then defines it as an emotion. An example is when the person is being chased by a bear. She may feel tachycardia for the emotion of fear.
In summary, the theory proposes that the emotions produce internal states of excitation and the human being seeks in the external world the explanation for this .
Theory of Cognitive Evaluation
Richard Lazarus was a pioneer in this area of emotion. This theory is often referred to as Lazarus’s theory of emotion. Based on cognitive assessment, we decide whether the situation is positive, negative or neutral. A positive or negative evaluation triggers the physiological excitement and the feeling of an emotion. The theory that has greater expressiveness, used by cognitive-behavioral therapy. Just know if I have positive or negative emotions.
In this theory, the sequence of events involves first a stimulus, followed by thought, which then leads to the simultaneous experience of a physiological response and emotion. For example, if you find a bear in the forest, the person can immediately begin to think that you are in great danger. This leads to the emotional experience of fear and the physical reactions associated with struggle or flight .
The Lazarus model is based on the model that establishes change in beliefs.
Facial Feedback Theory
This theory suggests that facial expressions are connected to experience emotions. Charles Darwin and William James observed early on that sometimes physiological responses often had a direct impact on emotion, rather than simply being a consequence of emotion. Proponents of this theory suggest that emotions are directly linked to changes in facial muscles. For example, people who are forced to smile pleasantly at a social function will enjoy a better time in the event than they would have frowned or had a more neutral facial expression.
Emotions serve for what, anyway?
Studying our emotions is very important for our survival and for tracing our destiny . They are indicators to take from a small to a large decision. They can be ephemeral, as when we are saddened by a colleague’s attitude, how they can last for a long time as in the case of mourning.
They also drive us to make decisions. From a simple, how to choose the clothes of the day how to decide for which course will try the college entrance examination. We can also choose whether we want to have a good day or a bad day. If you prefer company of bored or good friends friends.
In everyday language, people often use the terms “emotions” and “moods” interchangeably, but psychologists actually make distinctions between the two. How do they differ? An emotion is usually short-lived, but intense . Emotions are also likely to have a definite and identifiable cause. For example, after disagreeing with a friend about the policy, you may feel irritated for a short period of time.
A mood or mood, on the other hand, is usually much milder than an emotion, but more enduring . In many cases, it may be difficult to identify the specific cause of a mood. For example, you may feel sad for several days without any clearly identifiable reason.
In the next post I will present the feelings . (I.e.
That’s because I have a surprise goal. To understand the material I am preparing, it is necessary to be able to distinguish well what emotions are, how they act and feelings. So, these posts with didactic air.
It will be worth reading to be able to understand something wonderful that I am preparing.
Meanwhile, if you have not watched or want to see again, I recommend Fun Mind to understand the universe of emotions:
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